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A new study suggests that popular vitamin supplements are mostly useless. The most popular vitamin supplements, including vitamin C and calcium, don't really have major health benefits, the study found. Folic acid and B vitamins with folic acid could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, according to the study. But some others, like niacin and antioxidants, could actually cause harm.

Vitamin and mineral supplements are a staple in many people's diets, but there is increasing evidence to suggest the most popular ones are essentially useless .

A new systematic review of data and trials published between January 2012 and October 2017 found that many popular multivitamins — as well as vitamin C, vitamin D, and calcium supplements — had no real advantage to people's health and that there was no evidence taking them reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke, or early death.

The study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology , was led by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital and the University of Toronto.

"We were surprised to find so few positive effects of the most common supplements that people consume," said Dr. David Jenkins, the lead author of the study. "Our review found that if you want to use multivitamins, vitamin D, calcium or vitamin C, it does no harm — but there is no apparent advantage either."

There were, however, a few apparently advantageous supplements. Folic acid and B vitamins with folic acid may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, the study found. Niacin (a form of vitamin B3) and antioxidants, meanwhile, were associated with a higher risk of death by any cause, albeit a very small increase.

The researchers say these higher risks could be related to niacin's adverse effects on blood-sugar levels, or that when taken in high doses, antioxidants can be harmful . Alternatively, it could have something to do with people sometimes thinking that taking vitamins can be a substitute for a healthy, balanced diet.

"These findings suggest that people should be conscious of the supplements they're taking and ensure they're applicable to the specific vitamin or mineral deficiencies they have been advised of by their healthcare provider," Jenkins said.

The vitamins the team reviewed were A, B1, B2, B3 (niacin), B6, B9 (folic acid), C, D, and E, as well as carotene, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and selenium.

Research has found that some vitamins are more useful than others . For example, zinc has been linked to shortening the effects of a cold — something vitamin C doesn't do, despite what people think. Vitamin D can also be difficult to get from food, so if you're deficient, supplements may also be effective.

"In the absence of significant positive data — apart from folic acid's potential reduction in the risk of stroke and heart disease — it's most beneficial to rely on a healthy diet to get your fill of vitamins and minerals," Jenkins said. "So far, no research on supplements has shown us anything better than healthy servings of less processed plant foods , including vegetables, fruits, and nuts."

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Allocation of resources , apportionment of productive assets among different uses. Resource allocation arises as an issue because the resources of a society are in limited supply, whereas human wants are usually unlimited, and because any given resource can have many alternative uses.

Allocation of resources

In free-enterprise systems, the price system is the primary mechanism through which resources are distributed among the uses most desired by consumers. In planned economies and in the public sectors of mixed economies, the decisions regarding resource distribution are political. Within the limits of existing technology, the aim of any economizing agency is to allocate resources in a manner that obtains the maximum possible output from a given combination of resources. ( See buy cheap high quality Alexander McQueen Leather plateau pumps get authentic online outlet 2014 new ectpkYJ
; productivity .)

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distribution theory
, in economics, the systematic attempt to account for the sharing of the national income among the owners of the factors of production—land, labour, and capital. Traditionally, economists have studied how the costs of these factors and the size of their return—rent, wages, and profits—are fixed. The theory of distribution…
international trade: Natural resources
First, countries can have an advantage because they are richly endowed with a particular natural resource. For example, countries with plentiful oil resources can generally produce oil inexpensively. Because Saudi Arabia produces oil very cheaply, it holds a comparative advantage in oil, and it…
economics: Theory of allocation
The analysis of the behaviour of firms and households is to some extent symmetrical: all economic agents are conceived of as ordering a series of attainable positions in terms of an entity they are trying to maximize. A firm aims to maximize its use…
government economic policy: The allocative function
The allocative function in budgeting determines on what government revenue will be spent. Because a high proportion of national income is now devoted to public expenditure, allocation decisions become more significant in political and economic terms. At all times and in all countries…
economics: Keynesian economics
…of the firm or the allocation of resources. He was still concerned with the problem of demand and supply, but “demand” in the Keynesian model means the total level of effective demand in the economy, while “supply” means the country’s capacity to produce. When effective demand falls short of productive…
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To get into great shape, it is generally accepted that some aerobic training will be needed. However the type of training and the methods used will differ from person to person, and to achieve superior results it is important to select an activity that will work to ones best advantage.

It is hoped this article will have made clear the benefits aerobic training holds and the methods available.

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David Robson

As an active martial artist, bodybuilder and accredited personal trainer, David employs the latest cutting edge research to enhance his own progress.

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In cases of refund fraud, the “identity thief” uses another person’s Social Security Number and personal identification information “to file a fraudulent tax return, reporting fictitious wages and withholdings and obtains a tax refund.”

“Cases of employment identity theft identified by the Internal Revenue Service usually involve an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) filer who used the Social Security Number of another individual, i.e. victim, to gain employment,” TIGTA said in a report released in February .

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“Employment identity theft can cause a significant burden to innocent taxpayers, including the incorrect computation of taxes based on income that does not belong to them,” said the report.

The approximately 1.3 million cases of employment-related identity theft documented and recorded by the IRS in 2011 through 2016, involved foreign nationals whom the IRS had given Individual Taxpayer Identification Numbers (ITINs).

So, too, did the approximately 1.2 million cases of illegal aliens using Social Security Numbers that belonged to someone else or had been fabricated that TIGTA discovered in 2017.

The numbers of these cases were cited in the TIGTA report released last month . It was entitled, “Most Employment Identity Theft Victims Have Not Been Notified That Their Identities Are Being Used by Others for Employment.”

In the approximately 1.3 million cases, TIGTA said the IRS had placed a “marker” on the accounts of taxpayers whose identities the IRS believed had been stolen. In the approximately 1.2 million cases, TIGTA itself discovered the misuse of Social Security Numbers by ITIN holders by reviewing IRS records.

“The IRS placed the employment identity theft marker on 1,346,485 taxpayer accounts between PY [processing years] 2011 and 2016 through the e-file ITIN/SSN mismatch process,” said the TIGTA report.

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The IRS’s ITIN/SSN mismatch process showed which electronically filed tax returns had been filed by ITIN holders but had a W-2 showing wages earned with a Social Security Number.

TIGTA further reported that in analyzing IRS data for processing year (PY) 2017 it had “[i]dentified 1,227,579 tax returns…in which the ITIN does not match the SSN on the Form W-2.”

In response to questions from CNSNews.com , TIGTA said that in these 1,227,579 cases “over 1 million valid” SSNs issued by the Social Security Administration were used by ITIN holders. In the remainder of the cases, the ITIN holders used fabricated SSNs.

The IRS first began issuing ITINs in 1996. The purported purpose was to give foreign nationals who have a tax liability inside the United States an identification number to use when filing tax returns. To qualify for an ITIN, an individual must be a foreign national and must not be eligible to receive a Social Security Number.

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